Tecnologia no campo

 

Nos últimos anos, a produção e a produtividade na agropecuária paranaense registraram saltos incríveis, frutos da aplicação de novas tecnologias. São novos equipamentos, como plantadeiras e colheitadeiras robóticas, ou o uso de drones para verificar pragas e doenças e aplicar pontualmente agroquímicos, e também sementes, formas de cultivo e de defesa de lavouras que também estão proporcionando este avanço produtivo no Paraná.

De certa forma, no Brasil, essas novas tecnologias estão favorecendo grandes propriedades, que têm possibilidade de adquirir equipamentos de alto custo. A produção de soja, milho e algodão na região Centro-Oeste é um exemplo.

Mas vale lembrar que a maioria das propriedades rurais do país está nas mãos de pequenos e médios produtores, inclusive aqui no Paraná. Ou seja, é importante adaptar e incorporar entre eles essas novas tecnologias. Não se trata apenas de uma questão econômica. Também é uma questão social, de levar as pequenas e médias propriedades ao desenvolvimento tecnológico e, portanto, econômico. Levando em conta que 90% das propriedades brasileiras têm até quatro módulos fiscais, que no Paraná dá uma média de 70 hectares, esta adaptação da tecnologia passa a ter uma importância crucial.

A questão não é apenas voltada para equipamentos de alta tecnologia, mas como permitir que a maioria dos produtores se beneficie. Creio ser importante repensar a forma de cultivo. Já incorporamos a tecnologia do plantio direto, mas o fazemos de forma ainda incompleta, sem levar em conta a compactação do solo decorrente do uso constante de máquinas cada vez mais pesadas.

Assim, a meu ver, tudo deve começar com um bom tratamento do solo, de uma pesquisa apurada que cada produtor deve fazer de sua propriedade, preparando-a para o uso de equipamentos da agricultura de precisão, uma forma moderna de produzir mais com menos custo. Para auxiliar os agricultores, desde 2016, o Programa Integrado de Conservação do Solo e Água (Prosolo), criado pelo governo do Estado com apoio do Sistema FAEP/SENAR-PR, incentiva a elaboração de estratégias e projetos de recuperação e controle de solo nas propriedades rurais paranaenses. Ou seja, informação não falta e muitas mais ainda irão aparecer, mediante as pesquisas cientificas em andamento.

Como a tendência secular da agropecuária é reduzir o preço de seus produtos em razão da crescente produtividade, é indispensável que os produtores sejam acompanhados por um serviço de assistência técnica que permita saber as melhores tecnologias e, em alguns casos, alternativa de produtos.

Mas utilizar largamente novas tecnologia tem alguns problemas em nosso Estado e que precisam ser resolvidos com urgência. Para pilotar os equipamentos modernos são necessárias duas coisas importantes: capacitação e infraestrutura. Um operador preparado, que saiba ler as indicações de uso das máquinas e esteja apto a utilizar as ferramentas digitais é fundamental. Assim como a infraestrutura para dar suporte ao uso de internet, atualmente escassa no campo.

Na primeira questão, o SENAR-PR tem atuado fortemente para capacitar os produtores e trabalhadores rurais. Recentemente lançamos o curso de piloto automático de máquinas agrícolas, a nossa capacitação de operação de drone é uma das mais requisitadas, fora as outras centenas de títulos à disposição do campo, de forma gratuita.

Mesmo assim, essas são questões a serem resolvidas por governos estadual e municipais, que dão diretrizes para a educação e investimentos ou licenças para implantação de infraestrutura.

As grandes propriedades, de certa forma, já são atendidas por seus fornecedores de equipamentos modernos e já estão dominando as novas tecnologias. O desafio está em adaptar as novas tecnologias à estrutura fundiária paranaense de pequenas e médias propriedades, com participação direta de instituições de pesquisas, universidades e empresas de tecnologia, além, claro, do Poder Executivo.

A tarefa é árdua, sem dúvida. Mas as novas tecnologias não vão esperar a capacitação dos produtores nem a implantação da infraestrutura. É preciso avançar, de preferência no mesmo ritmo dos saltos incríveis da produção e produtividade da agropecuária paranaense.

Ágide Meneguette, presidente do Sistema FAEP/SENAR-PR

 

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