Essa notícia é verdadeira ou falsa?

Ainda estamos imersos na pandemia da COVID-19, um inimigo invisível que já causou 3,5 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo. Ler que existe 850 mil vírus que têm potencial para iniciar novas pandemias parece ser exagero e até mesmo algo criado para incitar pânico na população. Infelizmente, essa informação é verdadeira, trata-se de um dado apresentado em um relatório (que pode ser acessado clicando aqui) produzido, em julho de 2020, pela Plataforma Intergovernamental sobre Biodiversidade e Serviços Ecossistêmicos, conhecida como IPBES (em inglês, International Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services), que tem como objetivo informar os governos sobre o estado da biodiversidade, ecossistemas e serviços prestados, reforçando a interface ciência/política.

O relatório produzido pelo IPBES aponta que as pandemias surgem da diversidade de microrganismos encontrados na natureza, que são estranhos à nossa espécie, e pela perturbação ecológica e consumo insustentável causados pela humanidade. Os dados apresentados no relatório indicam que, 70% das doenças emergentes (por exemplo, Ebola, Zika, encefalite Nipah) e quase todas as pandemias conhecidas (por exemplo, influenza, HIV/AIDS, COVID-19) são zoonoses – ou seja, são causadas por microrganismos de origem animal. Estima-se que existe 1,7 milhão de vírus não descobertos em mamíferos e aves. Deste total, estima-se que entre 631 a 827 mil vírus podem ter a capacidade de infectar humanos. Os animais com maior potencial pandêmico são mamíferos (em particular morcegos, roedores, primatas) e algumas aves (em particular aves aquáticas), bem como gado (por exemplo, porcos, camelos, aves).

A conclusão é que essa notícia é verdadeira, há algumas décadas pesquisadores de diferentes áreas tem apontado para a necessidade de se compreender melhor o potencial para o surgimento de novas cepas (organismos da mesma espécie, por exemplo recentemente a Fiocruz indicou que há 92 cepas de COVID-19 em circulação no Brasil) com potencial de causar novas pandemias. Esse complexo mecanismo pode ser compreendido ao avaliarmos a história das pandemias de gripe. Segundo o epidemiologista estadunidense Michael Thomas Osterholm, diretor do Centro de Pesquisa e Política de Doenças Infecciosas da Universidade de Minnesota, desde a antiguidade, as pandemias de gripe representam a maior ameaça de uma calamidade mundial causada por doenças infecciosas. A transmissão direta de pássaros para humanos não foi demonstrada, mas quando um vírus é transmitido de pássaros selvagens para pássaros domesticados, como galinhas, ele passa por mudanças que permitem infectar humanos, porcos e, potencialmente, outros mamíferos. Uma vez que a nova cepa se adapta melhor aos humanos e é facilmente transmitida de pessoa para pessoa, ela é capaz de causar uma nova pandemia. Conforme o vírus passa repetidamente de um ser humano para o outro, ele eventualmente se torna menos virulento e se junta aos outros vírus da gripe que circulam pelo mundo a cada ano.

As considerações de Michael Thomas Osterholm, publicadas em 2009 no livro Global Health (Saúde Global), estão alinhadas aos apontamentos apresentados no relatório produzido pelo IPBES. Ambos estudos sugerem que o risco de surgimento de novas pandemias pode ser significativamente reduzido controlando as atividades humanas que levam à perda de biodiversidade. A conservação de áreas protegidas e a redução da exploração não sustentável reduzem o contato entre animais e humanos, ajudando a prevenir o surgimento de doenças.

Caro leitor, você tem dúvida sobre a veracidade do discurso científico presente em alguma notícia recebida via redes sociais, envie a notícia para nós! Iremos avaliar e posteriormente publicaremos nossas considerações sobre essa notícia.

Prof. Dr. Adriano Lopes Romero

Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – câmpus Campo Mourão

e-mail para contato: [email protected]

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